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». - a September, 1961 

No. 5y 




ONTARIO 



FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 



REP0RT 0?0 WS1 



lM©S M*° 






KE^ P 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

Fish and Wildlife Branch 



(That* Report* ore for Infra-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication) 



Hon. J.W. Spoon.r FA. MacDoagall 

Minister D «P ut y Minl.tor 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
No. 59 September, 1961 



Page 

Woodland Caribou Project - Spring I960. 

- by D. W. Simkin 1 

Validity of the Annual Beaver Transect. 

- by R. Boultbee 3 

Mourning Dove Random Road Counts, April to October, 14 
I960. - by L. J. Stock and R. D. Ussher 

Ruffed Grouse in the White River District, I960. 

- by C. F. Schenk 24 

Some Observations on Hunting and Angling in the 

Toronto Region. - by M. G. Johnson 29 

Fish Management Project No, 4, I960 Fish Plantings 
and Creel Census for Esker Lakes Park. 

- by W. H. Charlton 43 

Determination of the Production Capacity of a Fish 
Trough at Hill*s Lake Hatchery, Experiment # 11. 

- by Paul Graf 46 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA -DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



- 1 - 

WOODLAND CARIBOU PROJECT - SPRING I960 



by 
Do W„ Simkin 



Abstract 

As part of the Patricia Inventory, the Woodland 
Caribou Project was continued in the spring and 
summer of I960 in the former Woodland Caribou Crown 
Game Preserve. Field work was initiated to deter- 
mine at what date caribou does produce their calves; 
the type of habitat sought for calving and whether 
there was any calf mortality after parturition. 
Further studies were made on caribou feeding habits • 
Observations indicated that calving probably took 
place about May 17, with islands being extensively 
used as calving grounds. No sign of calf mortality 
was noted. Ground lichens, chiefly Cladonia mitis , 
C_. uncialis and C. amaurocraea were the food items 
most frequently utilized. Observations on the moose 
seen in the area are also given. 



Introduction 

The Woodland Caribou Project, initiated in connection with 
Patricia Inventory in 1959, was continued in the spring and summer 
of I960, This report deals with a project carried out from May 24 
to June 6 in the former Woodland Caribou Crown Game Preserve. 

While carrying out fieldwork in this area during the sum- 
mer of 1959, it was felt that useful information on caribou calving 
and food habits could be obtained by a field crew working in the 
same area during the period May 15-30 when caribou does were believed 
to be having their calves. As a result, the author and one of the 
Indian trappers employed in 1959 spent two weeks (May 24 - June 6) 
travelling around on foot and by canoe in the 1959 study area. 

The main purpose of this fieldwork was to determine at 
what date the caribou does produced their calves; what type of 
habitat they sought for calving; whether there was any calf morta- 
lity immediately after parturition and if so how extensive it was. 
Incidental to this, observations were made on caribou feeding habits 
in a less intense manner than was used in 1959« 

Description of the Study Area 

This area, in the heart of the old Woodland Caribou Crown 
Game Preserve, consists of about 300 square miles characterized by 
continuous stands of mature jackpine and black spruce, 60-£0 years 
old, which supports a very heavy growth of tree lichens and sub- 
climax ground lichens (see first report*) . 

* See Fish and Wildlife Management Report No. 52, June, I960. 



- 2 - 

Throughout most of the area the trees and ground lichens 
are growing on almost completely bare Pre-Cambrian rocko One 
jackpine, 10 s ' D.B.H. was aged at 65 years, another 9" D.B.H. at 67, 
and a black spruce #"' D.B.H. was 7$ years old. The terrain is quite 
rugged and irregular due to this predominance of exposed rock 6 
Numerous lakes, ponds, rivers and streams break up the country and 
also permit travel by canoe through most of the area with a minimum 
of trouble 

Methods 

As our chief purpose was to determine cow-calf ratios, 
time of calf parturition and presence or absence of calf mortality, 
it was necessary to be as mobile as possible and to cover a large 
area during a relatively short period of time. 

A base camp was established at Haggart Lake from May 24 - 
June 1, This was then moved to Irregular Lake for the period 
June 2-6. 

Daily trips and overnight trips were made from these base 
camps by canoe and by foot. In this manner a good coverage of the 
area was believed to have been made. On May 31 and June 2, tran- 
sects at two mi. intervals were flown over the study area in a heli- 
copter to try to locate animals in bogs. As it was believed that 
pregnant does made much use of islands in this area for calving, an 
attempt to search all of the likely looking islands was made. As 
a result of this less time was spent searching on the mainland, 
actually 42 island locations and 17 mainland areas. 

Where feeding activity was observed notes were made on 
species utilized. No sample plots were recorded as it was believed 
last year's work was adequate. 

Results 

Table I shows the number of animals seen and points out 
whether the animals were observed on the mainland or islands. 



TABLE I - CARIBOU OBSERVATIONS 
Date # Seen Sex & Age 



May 26 
May 27 
May 2$ 
May 28 
May 29 
May 30 
June 2 
June 3 
June 4 
June 6 



1 

4 
2 
2 
2 

1 
2 
1 
4 
2 



Yearling 9 

2 adult 9+2 calves 

Adult 9 + calf 

Adult 9 + calf 

Adult 9 + calf 

Yearling (sex ?) 

Young e 

Adult <? 

2 adult 9+2 calves 

Adult 9 + calf 



Location 



Haggart Lake 
Bulging Lake 
Haggart Lake 
Haggart Lake 
Mather Lake 
Mather Lake 
Haggart Lake 
Irregular Lake 
Irregular Lake 
Mather Lake 



Island Main- 
land 



X 
X 

X 
X 
X 

X 
X 



X 
X 



X 



Total 



21 



14 



- 3 - 

That eight adult females were observed, each with a calf, 
is a good indication that calf mortality, if any occurred, was not 
of too great a magnitude- A total of 59 locations, 42 islands and 
17 mainland areas, rore rather thoroughly covered on foot. No sign 
of caribou mortality of any type was found. 

At one Indian camp evidence of two caribou kills was found. 
It is quite legal for Indians to shoot caribou in this area but 
unfortunate ly in fear of reprisals the hunters are reluctant to talk 
about any animals which they kill. 

Feeding Observation s 

A total of 16 different locations were visited where 
caribou feeding had been observed. These are tabulated in Table II. 
No new information was obtained in respect to feeding habits at this 
time of year, rather the data merely support the conclusions from 
the 1959 work, 

TABLE II - FEEDING OBSERVATIONS 



DATE 



May 26 

May 27 
May 2g 
May 23 
May 29 
May 29 

May 30 

May 30 

June 3 
3 
3 

4 
4 
4 
5 
5 



FEED 



Convolin. il us 
U o m iti's , C 



;pp. - Co rangiferina 



amaurocraea 



Co mitis , r gn^iferina & uncialis 
Cl adonia spp heavily grazed 
(cladonia used considerably 
Ground and tree lichens 
C. mi tis, ^angi ferina , uncialis 



used extensively 

Tree lichens, Evernia mesomorpha 

and Usnea como'sa used 

Ground lichens & young birch leaves 

Birch leaves and Cladonia 

Cladonia spp, 

C ladonia spp, 

birch~leaves 

Clad onia "pp. 

Cladfbnia spp. 

Ground 2c tree lichens used heavily 

Ground & tree lichens 

Ground & tree lichens 



& tree lichens, aspen & 



ISLAND MAIN- 
LAND 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 

X 



X 
X 



X 



Apparently even in late May and early June caribou rely 
chiefly on ground and tree lichens for their main food supply. As 
the new growth of herbaceous plants emerges, it provides a variety 
in the caribou diet and becomes most important quantity-wise also. 

T ime of Calvin g 

A band of four caribou (two does each with a calf) was seen 
on May 27. Dee and calf tracks were seen on an island on May 26. 
All eight adult does seen had calves in attendance. Obvious at 
least the biggest part of the calving had been done before May 26. 



- 4 - 
All of the calves seen were quite agile and well developed. 

At least five of the calves took to the water when we dis- 
turbed theme Two other calves were about to plunge into the water 
and swim to an island with their dams when we interrupted. Obviously 
calves learn to swim very early in life- We felt that on at least 
one occasion we flushed a doe and calf from an island which the calf 
had never before left. This same calf swam with astonishing speed 
after hesitating somewhat before entering the water. 

We felt that calving had probably taken place about a 
week before our arrival in the study area or about May 17 • 

I still feel that it would be desirable to get into the 
study area before the majority, at least, of the does have their 
calves to accurately determine when and where calving does take 
place. 

Location of Calving 

Although I still cannot say with certainty that islands 
are sought by pregnant does for calving sites, I am led to believe, 
on the basis of this summer's work, that islands are preferred 
calving areas in the western rock region. Five of eight pairs of 
does and calves were observed on islands, A few of the islands 
visited had visual sign of heavy caribou use. 

Sixty-four per cent of the islands visited had sign of 
recent caribou useage while only 44 per cent of the mainland areas 
had such signs. 

Helicopter Survey 

During May 31 and June 2, transects laid out at two mile 
intervals over the study area were flown in a helicopter. The 
purpose of this work was to try to determine use of bogs by caribou* 
As was the case in the preceding summer, our results were very poor. 
Two adult stags were seen swimming across a lake but no animals were 
observed in the bush. Because of the light colour of caribou, they 
blend in very well with their habitat and thus are quite difficult 
to see. Another factor which lessens the chance of seeing these 
animals in the bush is that they are very curious beasts. I believe 
we probably flew over many caribou but because they remained still 
and did not move they went unseen. In contrast, when flying over 
moose they take flight or at least make some movement and immediately 
attract the attention of an observer. 

I do believe that the lack of observations of caribou in 
bogs was a real index to their use of them during this time of year. 
Ground work done in the bogs led us to believe that they did make 
little use of this type of habitat at least at the season when this 
work was done. 

Aggregations 

On two occasions four caribou were seen travelling together. 
In both cases they were two does and two calves. On one occasion two 



- 5 - 

stags were seen together. This further supports the suggestion made 
in last year's report that caribou disperse probably before calving 
and travel more or less individually throughout the summer . 

Sex Ratios 

Only three of the 21 animals observed were classified as 
stags. It would be very interesting to know where the stags are 
during the summer. Perhaps they are more wary than does and escape 
being observed more often than does and calves. This is very un- 
likely , or perhaps they inhabit a different type of habitat. It 
was hoped that the helicopter survey would shed light on this. 

That stags were so less frequently observed than does and 
calves on islands lends rather indirect support to the theory that 
does seek out islands specifically for calving and for protection 
from predators. 

As will be seen in the next section of this report, the 
majority of moose seen in the area also were cows and calves. Are 
the stags and bulls there but not as easily observed or is this 
area specifically calving ground and if so why? 

Aging Adults 

Due to the fact that antlers were still in the very early 
stages of development, it was impossible to even guess at ages of 
adults. It was possible however to classify adults into two groups 
- yearlings and older than yearlings. 

All of the adults seen had a conspicuous white mantle a- 
round the base of the neck and extending over the shoulders. In 
contrast, this white mantle was absent in yearlings and thus served 
as a good criterion for separating the two age groups. 

Moose Observations 

A total of 35 moose was observed while carrying out fieldwork. 
They were classified as follows: adult 9 with calf or calves - 14, 
calves - 15, large adult 9-2, yearling 9-1, yearling <? - 1, 
adult cT - 1, adult sex ? - 1. 

All but three of the moose observations were made on the 
mainland. The other three were of cows and their calves on islands. 

Again the question can be asked where were the adult males? 

Moose Productivity 

Since only two of 16 adult cows observed were without 
calves, we must consider that moose fertility in the study area was 
good. However only one pair of twins of a total of 14 cow-calf 
observations would suggest that productivity was rather low, i.e. rate 
of twinning. 



- 6 - 

Actually this is what one should expect as the area is not 
too abundant with moose food (i.e. browse species) and hunting has 
been almost negligible in the area. We should expect to find an 
over mature population of moose. 

The rate of twinning suggests that this might be the case© 
Further supporting evidence is the two moose skeletons which we found 
while doing ground work. Both had apparently died of natural causes 
as the skeletons were found in the bush and in an almost intact state. 
One was aged as wear class X, and the other as IX or X, 

Use of Islands by Moose 

Seventeen of 20 moose observations were at mainland locations. 
The remaining three were on islands. Apparently moose do not make 
as much use of islands in this area as do caribou. This also might 
be interpreted to indicate that moose do not compete with caribou 
for calving areas. 

Date of Calving 

That such a high percentage of the moose seen were cows with 
calves indicates that moose calving also was completed by the time 
we arrived in the study area. All of the calves seen were quite agile 
and sturdy. I believe most of the moose calving probably took place 
about two weeks before we arrived in the study area (about May 10). 

While observing moose and caribou calves almost at the 
same time while doing this fieldwork, it was quite interesting to 
note how much more precocious the young caribou were. They were 
much more agile, stronger runners and much stronger swimmers than 
the moose calves, although the moose were believed to be a week or 
so older. 

Summary 

1. Fieldwork was carried out in old Woodland Caribou Game Preserve 
from May 2k - June 6, I960. 

2. A total of 21 caribou (£ adult ?? + 8 calves; 3 dtf *s, 1 unsexed 
adult and 1 yearling ? ) was observed, two of which were seen 
during an aerial survey using a helicopter. 

3. Again as in 1959 very little, if any, use by caribou of bogs was 
noticed. 

ho No sign of calf mortality was observed. 

5. Fourteen of the 21 caribou were observed on islands, 

6. Ground lichens, chiefly Cladonia mitis , uncialis & amaurocraea 
were the most frequently observed food items utilized. Caribou 
also utilized newly developing leaves of bindweed, birch and 
aspen as they became available. 

7o Calving probably took place about May 17 » 



- 7 - 

3. From all indications, islands are extensively used as calving 
grounds. 

9, Two groups of four animals (two does and their calves) were 

observed. Apparently the stags are widely distributed as single 
animals or at most in very small herds. 

10. Yearlings can be identified in the spring by their uniform 
brownish tawny coloration. 

11. Thirty-five moose were observed. Twenty-nine of these were adult 
cows and their calves. Only two were bulls and one of these was 
a yearling. 

12. The occurrence of only one set of twins in 14 cow-calf observa- 
tions along with the discovery of two wear class IX and X moose 
carcasses suggests that the moose population is probably over 
mature „ 

13. The bulk of the moose calving probably took place about May 10. 



- 8 



VALIDITY OF THE ANNUAL BEAVER TRANSECT 

by 
R. Boultbee 



Abstract 

The object of this study of the I960 Sioux Lookout 
District Beaver Transect was to set valid confidence 
limits on the count of colonies. Colony counts were 
significantly correlated with water counts. By trial 
and error it was found that the square root of the 
colony counts yields a good pattern of experimental 
error on which reliable 95 per cent confidence limits 
can be set for the area within the transect bounds. 
The form of the confidence limits raises the suggestion 
that the number of colonies is approaching a maximum. 



The example used in this study is the Sioux Lookout 
Beaver Transect for I960. It covered 50$. 2 miles and took four 
hours and thirty-four minutes of flying. There were seven legs 
forming a closed figure. Live colonies and water counts were 
recorded by ten-minute periods. The navigator marked the time 
opposite recognizable features of the flight path on his map so 
that the distance travelled each ten minutes could be estimated. 

The ten-minute periods have been used to measure the 
variability of colony counts. They are twenty-nine in number. 
Thus for each subdivision of the transect the following data are 
recorded (appendix one). 

Colony counts, both observers combined (symbol C) 

Time in minutes (symbol T) 

Distance in miles (symbol M) 

Water counts, both observers combined (symbol W) 

Most time periods were ten minutes, but some at the 
beginning or end of a leg were different. The distance covered 
in each time period depended on the aircraft's relation to wind, 
Water counts are subjective but can not be ignored since their 
connection with colony counts is obvious. 

Our first step is to test the potency of the factors 
by finding the correlation coefficient between colony counts and 
the other factors. These are 

r CT = +0.37 (not significant) 

r CM = +0.35 (not significant) 

r CW = +0.44 (significant near the 2% level). 

Time and distance are found not significant, facts which 
we could expect since they varied little between subdivisions. 



- 9 - 

Water counts however are found to be a good indicator of colony- 
counts o Hence we concentrate our attention on water counts. 

The next step is to fit a curve to the colony and water 
data. We may fit several curves in a trial and error manner to see 
if we can find one which acceptably approximates the natural law 
which relates the two factors, A host of curves can be tried but 
it is customary to start with one having the form 

C = a + bWo 

The curve-fitting process gives us the following equation 
derived from the transect data, 

C - 1.0S6 + 0,133 W 

By placing the recorded values of W in the equation we 
get a set of estimates of the colony counts. The twenty-nine 
estimates are listed in the first column of appendix two. The 
second column lists the actual colony counts. Column three lists 
the differences between estimates and actual counts. The third 
column is important because these differences are the experimental 
error the shape of which decides the validity of the population 
estimate we want to make. 

In column four the differences are listed in numerical 
order and their range is divided into five equal parts. Five is 
chosen only as a convenient partition. The numbers of differences 
in each part form the following error pattern: 

13 





2 


7 










5 


2 


i 







The perfect pattern for experimental error is bell-shaped, 
having a single peak and tailing off symmetrically on each side 
practically to zero. The pattern we have obtained resembles the 
ideal to some extent but its peak is located considerably to the 
right of centre. We might be excused for accepting this pattern 
but we should at least try to see if a better pattern can be found 
with reasonable efforts. 

The fitting of curves (described in most text books on 
statistics) is a trial and error method of approximating the 
natural law governing a set of factors. In the present instance 
the writer/ after trying several equations, used one with the form 
VC~= a + bW. When fitted to the transect data this yields 



C = 0.0444W + 0.760 



- 10 - 

The pattern of experimental error for this equation is 
(appendix three) 







14 t 




4 1 


5 


' 


3 3 




i 



This pattern is noticeably more nearly symmetrical than 
the first. It is doubtful that it could be improved mucho With 
it we can claim statistical validity for the transect in the sense 
that other surveys of the same transect may be compared legiti- 
mately with the I960 survey. The extension of the survey to the 
whole District must remain a matter of individual judgment however. 

There is a latent weakness in our position which becomes 
clear if we remember that we have used the sum of water counts by 
two observers. Water counts vary with the observer , and involve 
a series of subjective decisions. If possible the same observers 
should be used if two surveys of the same transect are to be 
compared. 

Fitting a curve to data to find a valid approximation of 
the natural lav/ affecting them is only of academic interest unless 
we go on to make a population statement. The usual form of this 
statement is a set of upper and lower confidence limits. In the 
present example wo have uncovered an unexpected twist which will 
be seen in a few moments. 

The data comprised twenty-nine subdivisions of the transect 
and the average colony count per subdivisions is 150/29 or 5°17o 
The experimental error of the first equation would tell us that the 
95 per cent confidence limits are 5*17+ 1.09, or from 4c0£ to 6.26. 
These limits extend an equal distance above and below the average. 

According to the second equation the 95 per cent confidence 
limits extend from 3*51 to 5 065. These limits extend only a short 
distance above the average and a considerably greater distance below 
it. This may seem strange but it is based on an improved error 
pattern and is to be preferred. This situation makes us wonder if 
the number of cclonies is encountering an upper limitation of some 
kindo 

Applying the improved 95 per cent confidence limits to 
the total 150 houses on the transect we find them to extend from 
102 to 164. 

To summarize, the I960 Sioux Lookout District Beaver 
Transect has found colony counts significantly correlated with water 
counts. By trial and error it was found that the square root of 
the colony counts yields a good pattern of experimental error, on 
which reliable 95 per cent confidence limits can be set for the area 
within the transect bounds. Extension of the findings to the District 
area remains a matter of judgment. The form of the confidence limits 
raises the suggestion that the number of colonies is approaching a 
maximum . 



- 11 - 

APPENDIX ONE 
Census Data of Sioux Lookout Beaver Transect, I960 
(By ten-minute subdivisions) 



Both Observers 



Leg 


Minutes 


Miles 


Combined 
v/ater 
counts 


Combined 
colony- 
counts 


1 


11 


22.5 


48 


8 


10 


20.2 


42 


7 


10 


20.6 


35 


13 


8 


14.3 


39 


5 


2 


10 


19.1 


24 


4 


10 


18.8 


26 


8 


10 


18.7 


26 


3 


10 


20.4 


29 


4 


3 


10 


20.9 


29 


5 


10 


19.9 


41 


6 


10 


19.7 


46 


4 


10 


19.6 


41 


3 


4 


10 


I6c6 


32 


4 


8 


13.7 


16 





10 


15.9 


28 


11 


10 


18.0 


34 


8 


10 


16.1 


38 


8 


5 


10 


16.6 


42 


2 


10 


16.4 


37 


5 


10 


17.1 


28 


3 


4 


6.8 


8 





6 


10 


20.4 


27 


2 


10 


18.8 


39 


6 


10 


20.0 


35 


10 


5 


9.0 


7 


3 


7 


10 


19.8 


20 


2 


10 


12.6 


18 


5 


10 


19.5 


22 


3 


8 


16.2 


34 


8 



- 12 - 

APPENDIX TWO 
Experimental Error of C = 1.086 + 0.133 W 



Colony- 
counts 
from 
Equation 


Actual 
colony- 
counts 


Difference 


Differences 
in order 
of 
Magnitude 


7*47 
6.67 
5.74 
6,27 


8 

7 

13 

5 


- 0.53 

- Oo33 

- 7.26 
+ 1.27 


- 7.26 

- 6.19 


- 4.26 

- 3.46 


4.28 
4.54 
4.54 
4.94 


4 
8 
3 
4 


+ 0o28 
- 3o46 
+ 1,54 
+ 0o94 


- 2,39 

- 2o39 

- 1.86 

- 1.52 

- 0.98 

- 0.53 

- 0„33 


4.94 
6.54 
7.20 
6,54 


5 
6 

4 
3 


- 0.06 
+ 0.54 
+ 3.20 
+ 3.54 


- 0.06 
+ 0.27 
+ 0.28 
+ 0.54 
+ 0.94 
+ 1.01 

+ 1.01 

+ 1.27 
+ 1.34 
+ 1.54 
+ 1.75 
+ 1.81 
+ 2.15 


5.34 
3.21 
4.81 
5.61 
6,14 


4 



11 

8 

8 


+ 1.34 
+ 3.21 

- 6.19 

- 2.39 

- 1.86 


o.67 
6.01 
4.81 
2.15 


2 
5 
3 




+ 4.6? 
+ 1.01 
+ 1.81 
+ 2.15 


4.68 
6.27 
5.74 
2.02 


2 

6 

10 

3 


+ 2.68 
+ 0*27 

- 4.26 

- 0.98 


+ 2.68 
+ 3.20 
+ 3.21 
+ 3-54 
+ 4,67 


3.75 
3.48 
4.01 
5.61 


2 
5 
3 

8 


+ 1.75 
« 1.52 
+ 1.01 
- 2.39 



^ 2 

N 2 



7 



- 13 



APPENDIX THREE 



Experimental Error of V^ = 0.0444W + 0.760 

Differences 
V^c~~ in order 

From Actual of 

Equation \/c~ Difference Magnitude 



2.89 


2.83 


+ 0.06 


- 1.32 


2.62 


2.65 


- 0.03 


- 1.30 


2.31 


3.61 


- 1.30 


- 0.92 


2.49 


2.24 


+ 0.25 


- 0.85 


1.83 


2.00 


- 0.17 


- 0.68 


1.91 


2 .83 


- 0.92 


- 0.66 


1.91 


1.73 


+ 0.18 


- O.56 


2.05 


2.00 


+ 0.05 


- O.56 

- 0.38 


2.05 
2.58 


2.24 
2.45 


- 0.19 
+ 0.13 


- 0.19 


2.80 


2.00 


+ 0.80 


- 0.17 


2.58 


1.73 


+ 0.85 


- 0.03 
+ 0.01 


2,18 


2.00 


+ 0.18 


1.47 


0.00 


+ 1.47 


+ 0.04 


2.00 


3.32 


- 1.32 


+ 0.05 


2.27 


2.83 


- O.56 


+ 0.06 


2.45 


2.83 


- 0.38 


+ 0.13 
+ 0.16 


2.62 


1.41 


+ 1.21 


2.40 


2.24 


+ 0.16 


+ 0.18 


2.00 


1.73 


+ 0.27 


+ '0.18 


1.12 


0.00 


+ 1.12 


+ 0.24 
+ 0.25 


1.96 


1.41 


+ 0.55 


2.49 
2.31 


2,45 
3.16 


+ 0.04 
- 0.85 


+ 0.27 


+ 0.55 


1.07 


1.73 


- 0„66 


+ 0.80 
+ 0.85 


1.65 
1.56 


1.41 
2.24 


+ 0.24 
- 0.68 


+ 1.12 


1.74 


1.73 


+ 0.01 


+ 1.21 


2.27 


2.83 1 


- 0.56 


+ 1.47 



\ 



- 14 - 

MOURNING DOVE RANDOM ROAD COUNTS 
APRIL TO OCT.. I960 
LAKE ERIE DISTRICT 

by 
L. J« Stock and R, D. Ussher 



Abstract 

Mourning Doves were counted on 18,584 miles of random 
routes throughout the District from April to October, 
I960, inclusive. The total count was 3*469 birds, an 
average of IS. 7 per 100 miles; a decrease from 1959 
of 7o3 per 100 miles, or 28%. Included also is a 
separate section compiled by Mr, R, D c Ussher, in 
which the count per 100 miles was 36 1 over 1,893 
miles, and Pelee Island counts for July. A summary 
for the past five years is included. All compila- 
tions are by month and by County, and show the num- 
bers counted in flocks, pairs and singles. 



MONTHLY SUMMARY 



I960 

Month 

April 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 



D V 
Flocks 

52 

217 
141 

169 
234 
198 

6? 



TOTALS 1094 

Per cent 

of 

Total 31 

Totals 

by 

R.D. Ussher 87 

Grand 
Total 
District 2181 



Pelee Is, 

July 

Only 

Per cent 

of 

Total 



E CO 
Pairs 

126 
350 
158 
176 
306 
134 
18 



1268 



36 



222 



1490 



22 



15.4 



36 



25.1 



U N T 
Singles 

75 
249 
226 

155 

260 

122 

20 



Total 

253 

816 

525 

500 
800 
454 
121 



Total 

Miles 

1707 
4459 
3803 
1914 
2903 
3641 
157 



1107 



32 



374 



1481 



85 



3469 



683 



4152 



143 



18,584 



1893 



20,477 



215 



Birds per 

100 Mi. 

14o3 
18.3 
13o8 
26.2 
27o5 
12.5 
77 



18.7 



36.1 



19.8 



66.5 



59.5 



- 15 - 





S U 


M 


MAR 


Y 


BY C 


OUNTI 






I960 
COUNTY 


D V 
Flocks 

393 


E 


C 
Pairs 

502 


U 


N T 
Singles 

353 


Total 
1275 


Total 
Miles 

1349 


BIRDS PER 
Mile 


Essex 


95 


Kent 


127 




56 




51 


294 


751 


37o6 


Lambton 


79 




114 




57 


250 


505 


34<>5 


Middlesex 


64 




25 




22 


114 


2343 


4.5 


Norfolk 


76 




112 




57 


245 


3307 


7*4 


Haldimand 


4 




5 




12 


24 


339 


7-1 


We Hand 


53 




100 




106 


259 


2530 


10o4 



Misco 295 315 359 975 7339 13*5 

Totals 1094 1265 1107 3469 15 5 554 15„7 

Counties of Elgin and Lincoln and almost all others are 
represented in miscellaneous counts - i„e counts where counties 
were not segregated, 

SUMMARY FOR THE PAST FIVE YEARS 
ENTIRE DISTRICT 





YEAR 






TOTAL COUNT 


TOTAL 


MILES 


DOVES PER 






Sept 


e, Only 










100 MIo 


1956 




3,629 




5 


,124 


70o5 


1957 




May- 


Septo 


1,456 




5 


,174 


15 


1955 




Apr. 


-0ct o 


4,761 




21. 


,764 


22 


1959 




Apr 


-Septo 


3,344 




12. 


,531 


26 


I960 




Apr« 


-Octo 


3,469 

PELEE 


ISLAND 


15 


,554 


15,7 



July Only 

1957 165 

1955 135 

1959 59 

1960 143 



119 


139 


255 


45 


177 


76 


215 


66,5 



- 16 - 

CO MMEN TS 

The count of birds per mile is 7° 3 (2£#) less than in 1959* 

The much higher count tallied by Mr, R, D» Ussher was on 
routes principally in the west end of the District where doves are 
more abundant „ 

The majority of the counts are recorded during the regu- 
lar working da}? - , from SsOO a.nu to 5° 00 p.m., when doves are rela- 
tively scarce along the roads . 

A few counts on Pelee Island were taken at dawn and dusk 
which raised the count considerably, although the population there 
is comparatively high as indicated • 

The District totals, used for comparison with 1959 do 
not include those submitted by Mr. Ussher, When these are added the 
overall birds per mile is increased by 1,1, indicating the abundance 
of birds in the western part of the District,, 

ACKNOWLED G EMENTS 

The co-operation of all those who contributed to this 
report is gratefully acknowledged" J D W„ Allan, D„ Bailey, T L„ 
Beck, To A. Carter, G c J Clemens, R* W Finch, G, T„ Greenwood, 
Bo Eo Howell, Do C Martin, o L. Mellick, A. R. Muma, Co R« McKeown, 
Do Neill, He Eo Owen, L* H. Stewart, L A» Toll, K. Jo Juck, V e Jo 
Walker, and particularly Mr. R. D c Ussher who compiled, in detail, 
the section of the report which is included in its entiretyo 



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- 24 - 

RUFFED GROUSE IN THE WHITE RIVER DISTRICT I960 



by 
C. F. Schenk 



Abstract 

Spring drum count observations attested to a decline 
in the breeding stock, as compared to 1959* Brood 
observations throughout the summer provided evidence 
of normal survival of young-of-the-year birds . The 
mean brood size for the month of August, based on 
twenty-six broods, was 4,2 young birds . Fall hunt- 
ing season results are considered to be mediocre and 
substantiate the presence of a weak spring breeding 
population. An average of 29o7 birds were shot for 
each 100 man-hours of hunting over the entire season. 
Interpreted another way, an average of 3.4 man-hours 
were required to bag a bird during the I960 hunt, 
4o6 juvenile birds were bagged for each adult female 
on the basis of wings and tails collected from a sample 
of 251 birds o Sex ratios indicated a 2M:1F ratio in 
the adult group, while the ratio for the juvenile 
segment of the population was 1„5 females for each male 
birdo It is believed that this preponderance of young 
females may help to bolster grouse numbers next year 
if winter weather conditions continue to be favourable 
and a good hatching and rearing season prevails. 



Acknowledgments 

Various staff members of all Branches in the White River 
District co-operated splendidly in providing reports of their 
observations of grouse broods throughout the summer months. Special 
mention of the assistance of Assistant Senior Conservation Officer 
E. A. Pozzo and Conservation Officers E J. Mitchell, H. W. McCullough, 
and D. J. Rice in the several phases of our grouse management program 
throughout the year is necessary. Conservation Officer Rice was 
responsible for undertaking the aging and sexing work at District 
Office, which indeed was a great help at a busy time. 

Introduction 

This report embraces consideration of three different studies 
which were conducted during I960 with respect to ruffed grouse. A 
brief summary of the spring breeding stock survey undertaken in May 
is presented. An assessment of the observations made by staff members 
pertinent to brood survival throughout the summer period is also 
included. The third portion of the report deals with information 
collected throughout the fall hunting season by Conservation Officers 
in the field and through the distribution of grouse survey kits to a 
selected sample of grouse hunters throughout the District. This 



- 25 - 

latter information pertains to hunter success and to the aging and 
sexing of birds, the latter accomplished both in the field and from 
sets of wings and tails forwarded to District Office by interested 
hunters » 

Spring Breeding Stock Survey 

Drum counts undertaken on six census plots during May 
indicated a consistent decline throughout the District in the number 
of drumming males, thus suggesting a weaker spring breeding popu- 
lation than existed in 1959. This resulted in spite of the fact 
that brood survival, as indicated by summer brood observations and 
determinations of adult- juvenile ratios during the autumns of 195$ 
and 1959, was more than twice as good in 1959 as compared to the 
previous year. An examination of winter weather data for the year 

1959 failed to produce evidence of serious snow crusting or other 
prolonged adverse weather conditions which may have caused undue 
winter losses of birds 

In view of the season's rather mediocre hunter success 
results and the fact that brood survival was good throughout the 
District (see Table No, 1) it is certain that the low number of grouse 
available to hunters this year stemmed from a limited breeding stock* 
Consideration of the results of aging and sexing 251 grouse bagged 
by District hunters this year showed that two adult males were shot 
for each adult female harvested,, Whatever factor or combination of 
factors reduced numbers of grouse throughout last winter seemingly 
affected the female segment of the population more than male birds, 
since there was a slight sex-ratio imbalance in favour of females 
during the fall of 1959. 

1960 Summer Brood Survival 

A total of 113 ruffed grouse broods were observed and re- 
ported on by staff members during the summer of 1960„ Table 1 
illustrates the numbers of broods observed and average brood sizes 
for each month during the summer period. 

TABLE NO. 1 

BROOD SURVIVAL 

Average 
Period Broods Observed Brood Size 

June 24-30 11 5.5 

July 1-31 73 4c 8 

Aug. 1-31 26 4.2 

Sept. 1-15 3(not significant) 3 

TOTAL 113 4.6 



- 26 - 

Weather conditions in the critical days following the 
hatching period were conducive to good nesting success and optimum 
survival of young birds. Two rather light frosts were experienced 
on June 7th and 8th and the District rainfall for this month, taken 
from records at four District weather stations, was 2.45 inches. 
Measurable rain fell throughout the District on an average of 13 
days in this same month and the rainy periods were well scattered 
and no heavy individual rainfalls were experienced. Mean maximum 
and minimum temperatures for June at White River were 70° and 41 
respectively. These are somewhat above the long-term averages for 
this station. Weather conditions throughout July and August were 
generally conducive to good survival of young birds. 

Bump e_t al« (1947) cite the red fox as being one of the 
most significant predators of grouse during their early life stages. 
Since the fox population in the District is at an extremely high 
level this year, losses of unhatched eggs and young birds attributable 
to this predator might well have been considerable. 

Hunter Success : 

Thirty-seven co-operators in our grouse hunting survey 
provided information concerning 3$0 man-hours of hunting on foot. 
This group of hunters saw 175 birds and harvested 113? or 64° 6 per 
cent of the grouse encountered. Persons who drove along District 
roads to search for birds saw approximately one bird for each 10 
miles of driving and were only able to harvest .62 of a bird per 10 
miles. 

The results pertaining to hunter success are not considered 
to be valid for the District as a whole, since the returns and 
hunting hours represented were not evenly distributed. The presence 
of an active sportsmen's organization at Manitouwadge resulted in a 
disproportionate quantity of data being proffered which represented 
that particular area. Since general observations suggested that 
grouse hunting in the Manitouwadge division was not as good as in 
the White River and Wawa areas (this is substantiated by our in- 
adequate data from these latter three locales) our hunter success 
figures are lower than representative results for the entire District 
would have been. Thus, a true evaluation of our District grouse 
population based on our hunter success index cannot be attempted. 

Of the information in table 3 pertaining to road hunting, 
61 per cent of it was provided by hunters from Manitouwadge. 

Tables 2 and 3, respectively, summarize the information 
pertinent to hunting success for hunters afoot and for those who 
searched for birds by driving along District roads. 

Weather conditions throughout the hunting season could 
not be considered as a significant factor in reducing the harvest 
of birds. The season was ended prematurely in early November by 
the season's first heavy snowfall, as is so often the case in 
this District. 



- 27 



TABLE NO, 2 



HUNTER SUCCESS - HUNTING AFOOT 





Sept. 15 to 
Oct. 15 


Oct. 16 to 
Nov. 25 


Complete 
Season 


No. of hunter-hours 


174 


206 


380 


No. of Birds Seen 


81 


94 


175 


No. of Birds Shot 


57 


56 


113 


Birds Seen per 100 hunter-hours 


46.6 


45o6 


46 


Birds Shot per 100 hunter-hours 


32.8 


27.2 


29.7 


No. of man-hours per bird seen 


2.1 


2.2 


2.2 


No, of man-hours per bird shot 


3.0 


3.7 


3.4 


Occasions dogs used 


4 


2 


6 


Occasions dogs not used 


23 


35 


5S 



TABLE NO. 3 
HUNTER SUCCESS- ROAD HUNTERS 





Sept. 15 to 
Oct. 15 


Oct. 16 to 
Nov. 25 


Complete Season 


No. of Hunters 


22 


17 


39 


Miles Travelled 


265 


346 


611 


No. of Birds Seen 


30 


30 


60 


No. of Birds Shot 


25 


13 


38 


Birds seen per 10 miles driving 


1.1 


.87 


.98 


Birds shot per 10 miles driving 


.94 


.38 


.62 



- -2d - 

While we have no hunter success data from previous years 
to establish a comparison,, both of the preceding tables indicate 
that grouse hunting results during I960 were mediocre compared to 
results for certain years in other Districts where similar studies 
have been conducted in the past, 

Sex and Age Ratios 

A total of 251 usable sets of wing and tail feathers were 
examined to provide sex and age ratios for our I960 population e The 
results of these examinations are summarized in the table below* 



TABLE NQ e 4 
SEX AND AGE RATIOS OF RUFFED GROUSE 
WHITE RIVER DISTRICT I960 
Composition of the Sample 

Adult Males - 66 Adult Females - 33 Total Adults 
Juvenile Males-60 Juvenile Females- 92 



Total Males - 126 Total Females 



125 



99 

Total Juveniles 



152 



Sex Ratios 



Age Ratios 



Males to Females 126:125 or 1:1 

Adult Males to Adult Females 66:33 or 2:1 

Juvenile Males to Juvenile Females 60:92 or 

1:1.5 

Adults to Juveniles 99° 152 or 1:1.5 

Adult Females to Juveniles 33:152 or 1:4*6 



In 1959, a total of 242 wings and 
sex ratio stemming from the juvenile group 
so there has been little change in this res 
females to juvenile during the 1959 hunt wa 
alteration in the age ratio occurred either 
light snowfall during the current winter se 
prospects for District hunters next Fall. 
1961 should improve tremendously if better- 
conditions prevail during the hatching and 
and summer. 

References 



tails were checkedo The 
for that season was l:lo3» 
pect. The ratio of adult 
s 1:4, so that no drastic 
o However, the unusually 
ason may lead to better 
Hunting conditions for 
than-average weathor 
rearing periods this spring 



Bump, Gardiner, Robert W Darrow, Frank C. Edminster, 
Walter F. Crissey, 1947c The Ruffed Grouse - Life History, Propa- 
gation and Management e New York State Conservation Department, 
Albany, 915 PP« 

Pozzo, E A. 1959° Ruffed Grouse Hunt Report, White River 
District 1959 o Department of Lands & Forests, White River, Ontario. 
Unpublished Report «, 



- 29 - 

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON HUNTING AND ANGLING IN THE 

TORONTO REGION* 



by 
M. Go Johnson 



Abstract 

The Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation 
Authority is permitted to promote public recreation 
as one of the uses of conservation lands. The 
Authority is interested, therefore , in the welfare 
of sportsmen, particularly anglers, in the Region. 
From December 195$ to March I960 the Conservation 
Patrol Officers employed by the Authority recorded 
information on the success of approximately BOO 
hunters and 1,100 anglers. During 1959 the staffs 
of the Heart Lake Conservation Area and Glen Haffy 
Conservation Area checked 2,955 hunters and 7,03$ 
anglers and the information collected is presented* 



Introduction ; 

The Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority 
has jurisdiction over approximately one thousand square miles in the 
three counties, Peel, York and Ontario . The Region is composed of 
the drainages of several streams flowing into Lake Ontario including 
the Etobicoke and Mimico Creeks, the Humber, Don, and Rouge Rivers, 
and finally, Highland, Duff in, Petticoat and Caruthers Creeks . 

The Authority is concerned with the implementation of 
conservation practices. Under the terms of the Conservation Authori- 
ties Act lands acquired for conservation purposes may be used to 
provide public recreational facilities Therefore, the Authority 
has a vital interest in sports fishing, although there is less con- 
cern for hunting because of the heavy, year-round use of these lands 
by the public 

During recent years Conservation Patrol Officers have been 
employed by the Authority. These officers, in the course of their 
duties, checked a large number of hunters and anglers in most parts 
of the Region. Recently their duties have been restricted more or 
less to Authority and other flood plain lands. The information that 
they have collected during 195$ s 1959 and early I960 is made available 
in this report. 

It is appreciated that any sports fishing that can be 
provided by the Conservation Authority will aid in filling a need in 
the Toronto area. The quality of angling provided by the Authority 
in comparison with other sports fisheries, is of primary interest. 

*From Technical Report, April I960, The Metropolitan Toronto and 
Region Conservation Authority. 



30 - 



Winter Hunting, 1955 - 1959 : 



During the period from December 21 to February 25, 224 
hunters were interviewed (Table 1). The numbers of hunters checked 
in each township in no way reflect the relative hunting pressure. 
Roads in some townships were travelled much more frequently than in 
other townships by Authority officers . 

TABLE I ; The harvest of upland game taken by a sample of hunters 
checked during the 1958-1959 winter hunt (*Chinguacousy, 
Toronto Gore, Oxbridge ) „ 





No, Hunters 
checked 


Man-hours 
hunted 


C 

Jacks 


Jame harvested 


Success 
Man-Hrs ./ 
Animal 


Township- 


Cottontails 


Foxes 


Vaughan 


41 


90 


4 


5 


1 


9 


Toronto 


22 


32 


1 


1 




16 


Albion 


21 


42 


1 






42 


King 


33 


97 


1 


11 


1 


7^5 


Markham 


26 


67 


1 


4 




17 


Pickering 


65 


147 




4 




37 


Miscell* 4 


16 


31 


1 


2 




10 


TOTAL 


224 


506 


9 


27 2 


13c3 



Approximately 25 per cent of these hunting parties used one 
or more dogs. They harvested 40 per cent of the game,. Very little 
additional information can be obtained from such a small heterogeneous 
sample, 

Winter Hunting, 1959 - I960: 



A total of 344 hunters were interviewed between Nov. 1 and 
Feb. 29. (Table 2) . 



- 31 



TABLE II ; Game harvested by a Sample of 

hunters during the 1959 - I960 winter hunt. 





No. Hunters 
checked 


Man-hours 
hunted 


Game harvested 


Success 

Man-hrs./ 

Animal 


Township o 


Jacks] Cottontails 


Foxes 


Vaughan 


36 


6S 


5 


4 


- 


7c6 


Albion 


163 


476 


31 


41 


1 


6,5 


King 


27 


61 


5 


8 


- 


4.7 


Toronto 
Gore 


35 


50i 


6 


2 


- 


6,8 


Uxbridge 


9 


24^ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Markham 


27 


75 


- 


6 


- 


12 o 5 


Pickering 


2S 


105 


1 


17 


- 


5.3 


Miscell, 


14 


22 


1 


1 


- 


11 



TOTAL 



344 



882 



49 



79 



60S 



In the sample 42 per cent of parties used dogs, and 
harvested 47 per cent of the game,, A greater success of parties 
using dogs was noted from the data of the previous winter ? s hunting 
season. 

In the two-year sample of harvested game there were 5$ 
jacks (European hares), 106 cottontail rabbits and only three foxes. 
Fewer jacks than cottontails were observed in the harvest from all 
townships except Vaughan Township where equal numbers of each species 
were noted. The general rate of harvest of game or hunter success 
in 1959-1960 was approximately twice that of the sample of hunters 
of the 195S-1959 season. 

Pheasant Hunting, 1959 ; 

A total of 162 pheasant hunters were checked in several 
townships in the course of patrol. The small sample is indicative of 
hunter success only in very general terms 3 A number of cottontails 
and jacks were also harvested during the pheasant hunt. 



- 32 - 

TABLE III ; Pheasant hunting success in five townships in the 1959 
open season. 



Township. 


Open 
season 


No. hunters 
checked 


No. 
man-hours 
hunted 


Pheasants 
Seen Harvested 

"■"■' — ■ 


Man-hrs 
/bird 


Birds/ 
hunter 


Chinguacousy 


Oct. 
14-31 


id 


38^ 


15 


5 


7o7 


.23 


Toronto 


14-31 


37 


54 


17 


10 


8.4 


.27 


Vaughan 


21-31 


34 


141 


30 


10 


14ol 


.29 


Markham 


21-31 


30 


S3 


5 


4 


21 


.13 


Pickering 


21-31 


43 


154 


27 


12 


13 


,23 



TOTAL 



162 



550| 



94 



41 



13c5 



25 



Waterfowl Hunting, 1959 ; 

At the present time the Toronto region is certainly not 
known for waterfowl hunting. Undoubtedly some hunting occurs on 
the private ponds and lakes throughout the area, but public duck 
hunting has virtually no status. Two locations have been observed, 
namely Gibson Lake in Albion Township and the marsh at the mouth of 
Duff in Creek. Neither area is very extensive. 

A total of 24 hunters were checked on the Duffin Creek 
marsh on October 5,6,7, and 10, 1959» These men harvested 12 ducks. 
Four green-winged teal and three blue-winged teal, two mallards, two 
pintails and one black duck were noted. 

At Gibson Lake 53 hunters were checked on October 3« A 
total of 74 ducks were harvested. After the opening-day success, 
very few additional birds were taken during the remainder of the 
season. 

Trout Fishing, 1953 and 1959 

Speckled trout are found in most headwater streams of the 
watersheds. The feeder streams of the Main and East Branches of the 
Humber are mainly cold and provide suitable trout habitat. The West 
Branch tributaries are intermittent in flow and warm during the 
summer months. 

Speckled trout are found in only a few headwater streams 
of the Don River. Most branches of the Rouge River and Duffin Creek 
in Whitchurch and Uxbridge Township are suitable for trout, and the 
East Branch of Duffin Creek is sufficiently cool south to Number 7 
Highway. However, throughout the watersheds most of the suitable 
streams occur on private lands. 



- 33 - 

Brown trout have been stocked by the Department of Lands 
and Forests in many streams of the Region, Brown trout are able to 
tolerate temperatures slightly warmer than do the speckled trout. 
It is j therefore, expected that they might contribute to the angling 
in the middle reaches of these streams. Evidently brown trout are 
caught by angling in the Main Branch of the Humber River between 
Kleinburg and Woodbridge. They have been observed caught throughout 
the upper reaches of the Main Branch of the Humber River as well as 
from the small feeder streams and main flow of Cold Creek which 
rises in western King Township, A few brown trout have been observed 
caught at the Greenwood Conservation Area on Duff in Creek also. 

Rainbow trout occur in Duffin Creek c A run of these fish 
takes place each spring and some are harvested , for example from the 
East Branch in the Greenwood Conservation Area and below a relict 
dam just north of the village of Greenwood, Rainbow trout s which 
were stocked initially as five-inch yearlings in Heart Lake, supplied 
fair angling in the spring of 1959 ( Fig, 1), Approximately 1,000 
rainbow trout were harvested at an average length of 12 inches. 
Angling for trout during July and August was poor, although angling 
from boats produced catches until early July, 

Data were collected on trout angling on the East Branch 
of Duffin Creek, A total of 26 anglers were interviewed on May 1, 3 
and 15 and June 14, 1953, These anglers fished 94 man-hours and 
harvested 19 speckled trout and one rainbow trout. Success varied 
between 0,0 and 4o0 and averaged ,21 trout per man-hour. The 
speckled trout ranged from seven to twelve inches in length, and 
averaged nine inches. The rainbow trout was eighteen inches in 
length. 

Throughout May and June, 1959, a total of 207 anglers were 
checked on the East Branch of Duffin Creek, A total of 504 man-hours 
of angling produced a harvest of 65 trout, a success of ,13 fish per 
man-hour. 

Three species of trout were caught - 3$ speckled trout, 
19 rainbow trout and eight brown trout. Speckled trout ranged from 
seven inches to twelve inches, rainbow trout from eight to sixteen 
inches and brown trout from nine to eighteen inches. No attempt 
was made to estimate the number of trout captured and released by 
this sample of anglers. The success declined as the trout season 
progressed, until, after June 13 no trout were observed, although an 
additional 33 anglers were interviewed. Practically all anglers 
fished using worms as bait c The decline in success as the season 
progressed in illustrated (Fig. 2) 

On the Humber River north from Bolton (Cedar Mills, Albion 
Hills Conservation Area, Palgrave and along Number 25 sideroad) 15$ 
anglers were interviewed principally during May, and early June, but 
also on July 25, 1959. These anglers fished a total of 292 man-hours 
and harvested 2& trout. Of the total 23 were speckled trout and five 
were brown trout. The success of this sample of anglers was ,1 trout 
per man-hour, lower than the angler-success on Duffin Creek for both 
195# and 1959. At least 36 small speckled trout seven inches and less 



- 34 - 




Fig« I The trend in success (rate of harvest of fish) as 

obtained through interviews with 2,?95 anglers fishing 
Heart Lake from May to September, 1959. 



x 
i 

< 



Oh 

CO 
H 



4 



o3 



cl 







.May 1st 



May 2nd 



May 24,30 




lay 11, 16, IS 



June 3 * 6,$ 

June 12,13,14 

— -June 27,23,29 



Figo 2. The trend in success (rate of harvest of fish) by anglers 
interviewed on the East Branch of Duffin Creek, 1959» 



- 35 - 

were caught and released by these anglers „ Had there been no length 
limit on trout at that time, the harvest would have been increased 
one and a half times, for most of the returned fish were over six 
inches in length. 

The Glen Haffy Conservation Area was opened by the 
Conservation Authority in June, 1959* Speckled trout are reared and 
periodically stocked in two fishing ponds, each approximately one 
acre in size. During the period June 2k to Sept. 15 thousands of 
anglers used the area,, They fished approximately 20,000 man-hours 
and harvested 2,500 speckled trout « The success of anglers compared 
favourably with that of trout fishermen checked on other waters in 
the region, and was maintained for a longer periodo 

The fishing ponds required restocking at intervals of 
several days» The fish provided were two-year-old stock and averaged 
approximately 12 inches in length c Only two fish were allowed per 
angler. The trend in success of these anglers is shown (Fig. 3 ) • 

Warm Water Fishing, 1958 and 1959» 

There are many large ponds and lakes situated in the 
moraine hills across Peel, York and Ontario Counties. Most are 
privately owned. Wilcox Lake is partially accessible for public 
recreation. There are two boat-rental establishments. Pike have 
been caught in fair numbers. Largemouth bass have also been caught. 
Innis Lake in Albion Township receives some fishing pressure by the 
public. Evidently both largemouth bass and speckled trout are taken 
by anglers. 

Heart Lake was purchased and developed for public use by 
the Conservation Authority, and in June, 1957 9 the Heart Lake Conser- 
vation Area was opened officially. In the fall of that year the 
coarse fish were eliminated. Adult largemouth bass and yearling 
rainbow trout were stocked in 195$° The brown bullhead survived 
poisoning. Only a small number of adult bass have been harvested, 
but their progeny have grown quite well and contributed to the 
angling in 1959 as yearlings up to nine and ten inches in length. 

Because fishing was unsatisfactory in 1958 s little pressure 
was put on the lake. By comparison in 1959? 2955 anglers were inter- 
viewed. It was estimated that a total of 5,000 anglers fished nearly 
18,000 man-hours or 450 man-hours per acre. They harvested approxi- 
mately 1,000 rainbow trout, and a large number of bullheads, and 
750 largemouth bass. The trend in angling success is shown (Fig.l). 
It is evident that the trout made a very small contribution to the 
angling during July and August, but by July 1, the bass season had 
opened. Therefor e, the rainbow trout and largemouth bass supplement 
each other in this sports fishery. The implications in the trout- 
bass combination will be studied further by the Conservation 
Authority. 

No information on private lakes and ponds has been obtained, 
Among public fishing waters only very casual observations were made 
of several locations. The lagoons about the Toronto Islands provide 
some sports fishing. Sunfish, suckers and several other species are 
caught. One bowfin was seen in an angler's catch in 1958. 



- 36 - 




o 

ON 



o 

o 

-co 



o 
o 



o • 

vO 



-4- 



o^ 



C\2 



O u-n .J- 



OS 



Ol 



- 37 - 



The lower Humber is important particularly to the youth of the 
surrounding municipalities who take a large number of fish., mostly 
suckers. Spring sucker fishing from banks and bridges along the 
lower Humber is popular. Grenadier Pond provides some fishing for 
largemouth bass and pan fish. 

Some information was collected on the warm-water fishing 
at Frenchman Bay and the mouth of Duff in Creek. On checks made from 
May 19 to July 22 in 1958 a total of 45 anglers were recorded as 
retaining ^5 fish caught in 103 man-hours of angling, a success of 
.5 fish per man-hour. Success by party varied between and 3 fish 
per man-hour. All angling at Duff in Creek was from shore, while at 
Frenchman Bay the same number fished from boats as from shore. In 
1959, a total of 153 anglers were checked between May 6 and July 
27, These anglers spent 340 man-hours and harvested only 57 fish, 
a success of .2 fish per man-hour. 



(Table 4). 



The numbers of each species in the sample are shown 



TABLE IV ; The catch retained by 198 anglers checked at Frenchman 



Bay and Duff in Creek. 






Species 


1958 


1959 




Brown bullhead 

Yellow perch 

Pumpkinseed sunfish 

Pike 

Rock bass 

Carp 

Largemouth bass 


31 

16 

6 

2 


10 
21 
2 
16 
4 
3 
1 


Ice Fishing: 







Frenchman Bay east of Toronto provides a popular winter 
sports fishery. Creel census information was first recorded by the 
Authority staff during the 1957-1958 ice fishing season (Table 5). 



- 33 - 

TABLE V ; Creel census data on ice fishing, Frenchman Bay 1957 
195$. (RB, rock bass; B, brown bullhead) . 



Date 


No. Anglers 
checked 


No<>man-hours 
fished 


No, perch 
harvested 


No. pike 
harvested 


r ■■ ■■ 

No. other 

species 

harvested 


i 

Success 
fish per 

man-hr. 


Jan 11 


7 


41 


10 


- 


- 


.24 


" 12 


42 


153* 


63 


2 


1(RB) 


o43 


" 26 


31 


62 


43 


- 


KB) 


.71 


Feb 23 

. — 


11 


53i 


23 


1 


- 


45 



TOTAL 



91 



310 



139 



46 



The perch harvested ranged from five to twelve inches in 
length; they averaged seven inches. The three pike measured 25, 
15 and 30 inches. About one-third of the parties had been unsuccess- 
ful in harvesting any species at the time they were interviewed. 
The success was as high as three fish per man-hour in the case of 
one group of three anglers. 

Additional information was obtained on the ice fishing 
at Frenchman Bay during the 1953-1959 season (Table 6). 



- 39 - 

TABLE VI ; Creel census data on ice fishing ? Frenchman Bay, 1958- 
1959 season, (B, brown bullhead; WB, white bass; and 
BC, black crappie), 

*In some cases the information for two or three consecutive 
days has been grouped to provide at least 25 man-hours of 
angling for entry in the table « 



Date 


No. 
anglers 


No. 
man-hours 


No. perch 
harvested 


No. pike 
harvested 


No. other 

species 
harvested 


Success 
fish per 
man-hr 


Dec 14 


12 


31 


23 


- 


- 


.74 


17 


15 


29 


20 


- 


- 


.69 


28 


47 


132 


172 


4 


- 


1.3 


Jan 1,2 


23 


51 


57 


2 


- 


1.0 


3,4 


23 


37 


19 


1 


KB) 


o57 


11 


23 


51 


30 


- 


1(WB) 


.61 


16,17,16* 


20 


55 


13 


2 


- 


.27 


29,30,31 


38 


92 


19 


1 


- 


.22 


Feb 7 


16 


39 


7 


1 


- 


.20 


22 


14 


46 


2 


1 


- 


.07 


28 


12 


45 


- 


4 


- 


.09 


Mar 1 


12 


42 


- 


3 


- 


.07 


8 


29 


92 


- 


- 


3(BC) 


.03 



TOTAL 



284 



748 



362 



19 



52 



The perch harvested were of similar distribution in size 
to those caught during the preceding season. Large perch of 10 to 
12 inches in length were not observed until Jan. 11 but thereafter 
were caught quite frequently. Several largemouth bass were captured 
and returned to the water in late February and early March. Three 
black crappies also were taken at that time. The pike harvested 
were 16 to 20 inches in length, with the exception of three fish 
taken on February 28 which measured approximately 28 inches each. 
The single white bass observed was 10 inches in length. 



- 40 - 

The harvest of another sample of ice fisherman was obtained 
during the course of the 1959 - I960 season (Table 7). 

TABLE VII : Creel census data on ice fishing, Frenchman Bay, 1959- 
1960 season. 



Date 


No. Anglers 


No. man-hours 


No. p-.rch 
harvested 


No, pike 
harvested 


Success 
fish per 
man-hr. 


Jan 16 


39 


79^ 


119 


2 


1.5 


17 


36 


89 


91 


2 


1.0 


30 


14 


35 


34 


- 


o97 


31 


17 


42 


9 


- 


.21 


Feb 14 


13 


33 


5 


- 


.15 


21,28 


28 


66 


25 


2 


.37 



TOTAL 



147 



344 



293 



6 



87 



The pike harvested were from 16 to 31 inches and averaged 
22 inches in lengths The perch were similar in size to those caught 
in previous seasons. The largest perch measured 12j inches. 

Evidently the most successful fishing took place early in 
the ice fishing season (Fig 4) • The trend in the maximum rate of 
harvest was similar to that of the average success throughout each of 
the 195S-1959 and 1959-1960 seasons. The percentage of parties which 
caught fish, a general estimate of angling success, appeared to be 
more erratic, although indicative to some extent of high and low rates 
of harvest. 

Smelt Fishing : 

The Lake Ontario shore east of the Scarborough bluffs is 
well known for good smelt fishing. The beach is accessible east 
of the frenchman Bay channel and at the mouth of Duff in Creek. Smelt 
Fishermen were checked each spring, but no record of the number of 
persons or their harvest was made. 

Acknowledgments : 

Conservation Patrol Officers R. Speakman, E. Wolfreys and 
W. Wand interviewed the hunters and anglers in this sample of sports- 
men. They are to be thanked for making the time available to record 
the information. The superintendents of the Glen Haffy and Heart 
Lake Conservation Areas, E. Parker and R, Dawe respectively, super- 
vised the creel census in their areas 



o 

I 



CO 



10 

6 
4 

2 


1.5 



"ZX 



41 - 



MAXIMUM SUCCESS 
(HARVEST RATE) 
MINIMUM SUCCESS 
(HARVEST RATE) 
0-IN EACH CASE 




1.0 



o 

I 

< 

PC 
CO 
H 



MEAN SUCCESS 
(HARVEST RATE) 



1959-60 



0.5 




100 




o*o 



o 



PERCENT OF PARTIES WHICH HAD SOME 
SUCCESS BEFORE BEING INTERVIEWED. 



50 








DEC 



JAN 



FEB 



MAR 



Fig. 4^ Trends in the success (rate of harvest of fish) 
by ice fishermen at Frenchman Bay, 1953-1959 and 
1959-1960 seasons. 



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- 43 - 

FISH MANAGEIJENT PROJECT NO. 4, 
I960 FISH PLANTINGS AND CREEL CENSUS 
FOR ESKER LAKES PARK 

by 
Wo H. Charlton 



A creel census was 
April 30 to Septemb 
spent a total of 1, 
trout for a yield o 
The combined weight 
or approximately on 
all these fish were 
4,000 fish planted 
2,000 fish planted 
available to the an 
presented a 33.1 pe 
fish to the angler. 



Abstract 

conducted in Esker Lakes Park from 
er 15? I960. Some 450 anglers 
520 hours to catch 2235 speckled 
f 1.50 fish per man-hour of fishing. 

of the fish was 1,095 lbs., 12 ozs. 
e half pound per fish. Practically 

hatchery-planted adults. Some 
during the i960 season along with 
in September 1959 made 6,000 fish 
gler. The 2,235 fish caught re- 
r cent return of hatchery-reared 



Fish Plantin gs; 

During the year I960, the following trout plantings from 
Hill's Lake Hatchery were made in Esker Lakes Parks 

Pana gapk a L ake 



May 16 2,000 


Speckled Trout 


430.0 lbs. 


4 Yrs. 


June 27 1,000 


Speckled Trout 


162*5 lbs. 


2 Yrs. 


July 22 567 


Speckled Trout 


266.0 lbs. 


3 Yrs. 


July 22 433 


Speckled Trout 


73.0 lbs. 


2 Yrs. 


TOTAL 4,000 




936.5 lbs. 




*Pall Lake 


700 yearling 


speckled trout 


30.0 lbs. 


*Bea Lake 


900 " 


Si It 


35.7 lbs. 


*Mall Lake 


1,500 " 


U !? 


60.0 lbs. 


*Lavery Lake 


600 " 


t* ?» 


24.0 lbs. 


*Roach Lake 


300 " 


n tt 


32.0 lbs. 


*Ramey Lake 


1,350 " 


t? !! 


54«0 lbs. 


*Lallan Lake 


2,200 " 


tl ?? 


44»0 lbs. 


Old Man Lake 


4,000 fingerling 


Kamloops trout 


1.2 lbs. 


Seahorse Lake 


1,950 


aurora trout 


3.7 lbs. 



*The marked lakes above were planted in accordance with Fisheries 

Management Project #3. Half of the fish indicated for each lake 

were planted by aircraft, while the other half were planted by 
truck. 



- 44 - 



Creel Census? 



For the second year, a detailed creel census has been 
conducted in Esker Lakes Park. This creel census extended from the 
opening of trout season on April 30th to closure on September 15th. 
All data were collected by the Park Superintendent and his staff. 

The tourist camping area is located on Lake Panagapka. 
The other lakes run north, separated by short portages. There is 
an access road from Panagapka Lake to the other lakes, but the road 
was closed prior to the I960 season. It was hoped that fishermen 
would canoe to the lakes rather than drive the road, but such was 
not the case last season. The result was that all the data collect- 
ed wore from Panagapka Lake with the exception of one report for 
Lallan Lake. 



Panagapka Lake 


B 
D 


























# Man 


Month 


# Fish 




Weight 




# Men 


Hrs. 


Apr. 


192 


106 


lbs. 


. 13 


OZSe 


22 


44o 5 


May 


1,154 


532 


«? 


13 


n 


174 


272.5 


June 


329 


151 


*« 


13 


Si 


109 


477.0 


July 


333 


173 


i? 


4 


it 


101 


322.0 


Aug. 


165 


91 


?? 


15 


?? 


27 


350.0 


Sept . 


62 
2,285 


39 


«? 


2 


?? 


17 
450 


54.0 


TOTAL 


1095 


lbs. 


, 12 


ozs. 


1520.0 


Lallan 


Lakes 















May 



5 lbs. 3 ozs. 



5.0 



Success 
Fish/Man Hrs 

4.31 
4.01 
0.69 
1.19 
0.47 
1.15 

1.50 



0.40 



The data show a tremendous reduction in fishing pressure 
from 1959, with only half the effort being expended on Panagapka 
Lake and no angling returns for Pall, Mall, Lavery, Roach or Ramey 
Lakes. 

In all, 450 anglers spent a total of 1,520 hours to catch 
2,285 speckled trout. All but a very few of these fish were hatch- 
ery-planted adults. The weight of the fish was 1,095 lbs. 12 ozs., 
or approximately half a pound per fish. 

The 2,000 fish planted on September 14th, 1959, did not 
contribute significantly to the 1959 fishery, but rather to the I960 
fishery. Thus, for 1959, 2,200 adult hatchery fish were available 
to the angler, of which 496 were caught. This is a return of 22.7%. 
In considering this low figure, it must be realized that 1,100 of 
these fish were planted on August 1st, and were not available for 
the greater part of the season. 

Early catches in I960 indicated good survival of hatchery 
fish over the winter. The 2,000 fish from 1959 coupled with the 
4,000 fish planted during the I960 season made 6,000 fish available, 
of which 2,285 were caught. This is a return of 38.1% to the angler, 
and an increase of 15. K% over 1959. Part of this increase resulted 



- 45 - 

from the large number of fish caught early in the I960 season, 
compared to the low early season catch in 1959 prior to the June 
26th stocking of adults. 

Observations of pectoral fin malformations were recorded 
to obtain an index for hatchery stock. In I960, $7 fish were observed 
with fin deformities. This is one fish for every 26 fish caught. 
In 1959> one fish in every 32 fish caught showed some pectoral fin 
deformity. 



- 46 - 

DETERMINATION OF THE PRODUCTION CAPACITY 
OF A FISH TROUGH AT HILL'S LAKE HATCHERY 
EXPERIMENT # 11 



by 
Paul Graf 



Abstract 

An experiment was conducted during the spring and 
summer of I960 at Hill's Lake Hatchery to determine 
the maximum number of speckled trout fry that could 
be efficiently reared in a standard hatchery trough,, 
Four troughs were used, each containing a different 
number of fisho These fish received food in pro- 
portion to their numbers and body weights and were 
treated similarly in all other respects* It was 
determined that if good growth of fish is to be ob- 
tained each trough should not contain more than 
25,000 to 30,000 fry until the fry feed properly, 
then if a sample of 500 fry weighs 50 grams the trough 
should not contain more than 15,000 to 20,000 fry. 



Introduction 

The problem of over-crowding in Hill's Lake Hatchery is 
aggravated by the late break-up of lakes in this area,. The yearling 
trout held over the winter in raceways cannot be stocked early 
enough in the spring to allow the fast growing fry to be transferred 
to the raceways o This experiment was designed to determine how 
many speckled trout fry could be raised throughout the summer in a 
single hatchery trough without showing effects of over-crowding. 

Purpose 

To determine the maximum number of fish that can be 
reared in a hatchery trough without showing effects of over- 
crowding. 

Method 

One hatchery table consisting of four troughs was used 
for this experiment. Each trough contained 22 gallons of water, 
and the water flowed at a rate of l+h gallons per minute. The eggs 
were taken from three year old hatchery parent stock spawned 
October 5th, 1959. These hatched January 12th, I960, and produced 
SO, 000 fry. Fish from this stock were used in Experiment # 11 and 
12. Before the experiment began, these fish were fed beef spleen 
and the loss from 80,000 fry was only 567 • During the experiment, 
they were fed 1/3 pork spleen, 1/3 beef spleen and 1/3 beef liver 
which was sprayed into the trough six or seven times daily. 



1:.- 



- 47 - 

Each day the food was weighed on a 200 gram beam scale. As the 
fish required more food, a 10 kgm, beam scale was used., In all 
four troughs, the fry were fed in proportion to their numbers 
and body weights . The loss of fish, water temperature and weight 
of food was recorded each day. During the experiment, the fish 
were examined weekly with a microscope. The fry were treated 
with pyridylmercuric acetate (PMA) three times against bacterial 
gill disease and twice with formaldehyde for Chilodons and Tricho- 
dina parasites c 

The data are as follows" 

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WT. OF 500 FISH, (gms.) 




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- 54 - 



Conclusion 



This experiment has a great value with respect to the rear- 
ing of trout. It shows the importance of the proper number of fish 
in a hatchery trough. The type of food used produced good growth 
and low loss of fry in Trough # 1 and # 2. 

Through this experiment, we can accurately estimate how 
many good quality fish can be reared in a trough at Hill 9 s Lake 
Hatchery. In the normal operation, hatchery fry are kept in the 
troughs until mid May, and are then gradually transferred to the 
raceways,, This transfer is done by removing a few fish from each 
trough. If good growth of fish is to be obtained, each trough 
should not contain more than 25,000 to 30,000 fry until fry feed 
properly. If a sample of 500 fry weighs 50 grams, the trough 
should not contain more than 15,000 to 20,000 fry. 



Weight (500 Fry) 



60 gms. 

70 gmso 

90 gmso 
100 gms. 
150 - 200 gms 
300 - 500 »» 
500 - S00 " 
S00 - 1,500 " 



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10,000 
g,000 
7,000 
5,000 
3,000 
2,500 



2,000 



These numbers were estimated during the experiment,